Bloom’s and Blooms

How to teach about flowers… or anything else.

I’m currently enrolled in the online course Online Teaching Certificate, which is about (you guessed it) how to teach… online courses. Ironically relevant repetition aside, it’s being superbly useful to me as an instructor with only ~4 years of formal teaching experience under my belt, because it’s serving as a thorough introduction to the principles underlying good teaching and effective course design.

My day consisted of 1-2 hours of grading before a scheduled phone interview this morning, 5 hours of teaching, at least 3 more hours of grading and prepwork for the remaining 1.5 weeks in the summer semester, and then ~2 hours of work for the online course. In the midst of all of this we’re trying to close on a house by the beginning of July. Oh, and I wrote this blog entry. 🙂

The focus of this week’s lesson was course design, with most of the discussion centered around the use of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning to design, teach, and evaluate successfully. It’s useful for students to think about these concepts as well, as it’s a helpful way to structure your studying.


Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • The first level of learning is simply to remember the relevant information (e.g. vocabulary words).
  • Then, you should be able to understand the information in context and apply it to scenarios (e.g. use it in an example).
  • Analysis adds your ability to compare and contrast related topics, and how they are organized so that you can troubleshoot (e.g. look for flaws or connections).
  • In truth, evaluation will require an even more thorough explanation of that analysis, with your added judgement and interpretation (e.g. choose the best of several methods).
  • Once you’ve those levels under your philosophical belt, you understand a topic well enough that you should be able to effectively create new content (e.g. a study guide).

What next?
You should find yourself constantly returning to those earlier levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy to analyze and evaluate your own work!

  • Are there errors?
  • Does it logically make sense?
  • Do you still remember the details?
  • Does the new material integrate ideas from each of the various parts of the issue?
  • Can you distill the topic to its core elements so that a 5th grader would understand you?

featured image: a giant bee in Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, Socorro, NM (July 2016)


“Under God” – Religion & Politics Brief

Interesting history here about the changes to the US Pledge of Allegiance over the years.


American Christians frequently protest about removing the phrase “Under God” from the pledge, and a variety of groups field objections (on various grounds) to students not being required to say the pledge at all. While symbolically pledging oneself to the country is certainly a show of loyalty, the addition (or removal) of this phrase is most certainly NOT one originating with the Founding Fathers’ beliefs or guidance for this country.

  • The added words were the response to cold-war politics in the 1950’s. President Eisenhower’s suggestion can easily be read as an attempt to unify the US against the (implied) godless communist/socialist Soviet Union, much like the rhetoric of the European crusades.
  • The United States was formed on the principle of religious freedom, not religious unification. Of particular note is that the Declaration of Independence does not use Judeo-Christian phrasing. The Constitution mentions neither a god nor a creator.

Flag image originally from Brandon Paxton’s post on Facebook.

The Value of “I don’t know.”

Can you ever answer an unasked question?

Allow yourself to admit that you need more time to answer, instead of stopping questions in their tracks.

Although it might seem most valuable (and good for your ego) to have a ready answer to every question, it’s basically impossible to know everything. By giving an answer that isn’t well-grounded in reality or is blatantly wrong, you actually risk others losing more confidence in your ability to teach, learn, lead, or follow, than if you simply admitted your ignorance. Same principle follows regarding admitting when you’re wrong.


Consider this: What do you risk by assuming you know?

  • Does a bad decision have potentially harmful consequences?
  • Are you excluding better options?
  • How do your actions affect others’ perception of you?
  • Is someone else relying on your statement’s accuracy?

Ignorance is a much simpler trait to alter than arrogance. 

We live in a golden age of information, with thousands – nay, millions – of free resources at our literal fingertips. As a professor, I would rather you learn the skills to find reliable answers than have you blindly follow the swift and volatile statements of the masses. Consider these questions below, along with applying basic principles of information literacy and pseudoscience analysis. (‘Cause I’m a student, that’s why.)

  • Is the answer you hear one that makes logical sense?
  • Does your source have an ulterior motive for providing the information?
  • Would this answer be likely to change if one aspect of it were actually false?
  • Are there many widely varying versions of this “correct answer?”

featured image: gold-tipped bottlebrush (Melaleuca polandii) in Armstrong’s International Garden (Feb 2017)

My Inner Skald

Norse storytellers and lore keepers were known as skalds, and played much the same role as bards. They entertained, learned, shared, critiqued, and generally did anything they could to make themselves indispensable to the warriors that would often become part of their tales.

There is no wisdom in losing the hard-won lessons the past can teach to us. We need only be willing to listen… to the sagas, laws, insults, songs, records, and myths of all peoples.

Sovngarde Song

Legends of the Frost

The artist of both songs is Miracle of Sound.

It’s smart to admit when you’re wrong.

An article by Business Insider recently highlighted the “five most fundamental differences between smart and stupid people,” and it doesn’t read like the success self-help book you’d expect.

“In a situation of conflict, smart people have an easier time empathizing with the other person and understanding their arguments. They are also able to integrate these arguments into their own chain of thought and to reconsider their opinions accordingly.”
-Lisa Schonhaar, Gisela Wolf: Business Insider 

My mom and I have recently been discussing the sticker (and t-shirt) she gave to me as a birthday gift, both of which include this exasperated saying: I Can Teach It To You, But I Can’t Understand It For You. She shared this article with me, which highlights empathy, cooperation, critical thinking, and honesty as some of the most telling characteristics of smart people.

How smart is your attitude?

The Scientist

Scientists don’t think the same way as your average person.

What does that mean? Well, it means that we’ve trained our minds to use a particular set of skills that many people don’t understand or actively avoid using. Often those who pursue science have natural tendencies toward curiosity and information, and a quicker grasp of numerical analysis than others, but not always. Many of us are simply passionate enough about science to buckle down and learn the mindset that a scientist needs.

One skill is the ability to objectively analyze information.

We don’t just nod approvingly, our minds latch onto bits and pieces of everything that comes our way. From behavioral patterns to mathematical models, we are surrounded by information that is often raw and complex. Information alone doesn’t do anything for us, it isn’t good, or bad, or helpful – it exists, with that existence having inherent value and potential. Scientists are the ones who use that potential, those who look for the reality of what is truly there instead of just skimming the surface.

This skill comes in two flavors, and not everyone likes both equally.

First, there is the ability to dig deeper and deeper into the minute details. Taxonomists, chemists, and molecular biologists are examples of those who use this skill extensively. They need the attention to detail, the patience, and the dedication to catalog all  of the differences between two species, or to analyze thousands of samples of DNA looking for a matching sequence across taxa. Often, this is described as a reductionist analysis of the world. Application of objective analysis in this way leads us to further understanding of precisely how things work and what they are.

Second, there is the ability to analyze patterns and interactions at the scale of whole systems. Ecologists, sociologists, and climatologists are examples of those who use this skill extensively. These scientists need to integrate information from a variety of sources and find out how everything fits together, how individuals and parameters are connected, and determine the consequences of a series of changes. They are often dealing directly with the emergent properties of a system, rather than with the individual cogs in the machine. Application of objective analysis in this way results in a better comprehension of what happens and why it can happen again.

A second skill is the willingness to step back from our beliefs.

Scientists rely on evidence. We search for evidence, analyze our evidence in the form of data, build our models out of pieces of evidence, and sometimes change the world by finding evidence to support new ideas about the world. Yes, new ideas about the world. The importance of this skill is that every good scientist inherently understands that they are actively seeking to determine if they are wrong. We make the absolute best hypotheses possible, that logically could be right and are based on the most complete information at the time. And then we set out and dedicate ourselves to finding the truth.

Falsifiable hypotheses, experimental controls, and large sample sizes are all tools that we use to try to find the truth. And yet all of those tools are useless indeed if we ignore the result of their dedicated application. What happens when we are wrong? First, we determine just how much we can trust that answer. Did we collect reliable information? What might have gone wrong? This is also where statistics comes into play. Second, we accept it and determine the consequences. We know nothing – we seek everything. In reality, what this means is that we do change our minds sometimes (We thought the world was flat until evidence indicated otherwise, remember?). Additionally we end up accepting contradictions as an inherent part of reality.

Perhaps the evidence didn’t support my hypothesis because I don’t know enough to write the correct hypothesis yet.


“I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.” -Socrates

Why? What is it about these two skills that often sets scientists apart?

One reason, in my opinion, is that humans have a deep desire for the status that comes with being right. James Gee discusses our desire for social status and the need to support our “family” in his book The Anti-Education Era, and these are traits that do help us survive. We are inherently social animals, and being wrong can, quite frankly, sometimes have devastating consequences. Not only do we want to be right, we also want to be with others who are right because of the direct and indirect benefits we gain.

Consider this: “Do you want to rely on someone who says that they might be wrong?”

This is the kind of mental construct that exists to some degree in all social organisms, and it developed entirely outside of (and prior to) the construction of formal scientific methodology. It is a Darwinian safety mechanism that has been built over time because bad decisions have consequences – often death. The result is that most people tend to hesitate in following someone that has been wrong in the past.

Consider this: “Can you trust someone who refuses to admit that they could be wrong?”

Aye, there’s the rub. We are also aware of our own fallibility. Since we are capable of being wrong, there is always the possibility that we are at this moment, actually and truly wrong. This understanding of ourselves and others logically leads to skepticism that also benefits our survival, and someone who refuses to accept this possibility can (and should) seem insane and untrustworthy.

The Conundrum: A need to be skeptical of both those who state that they can be wrong, and of those who state that they cannot be wrong. 

Thus we see how trust in scientists is so easily lost, and how people can so easily be misled. We see why scientists rarely become celebrities, and why bad ideas that don’t kill you can spread like wildfire.

A second reason is the fear of the unknown, resulting in the construction of explanations independent of evidence. This is based in part on the concept of “mental comfort stories”discussed by Gee, as he illustrates how much our happiness and contentment about the state of our lives often relies on not challenging these comfort stories. Effectively, humans often reap benefits from ignoring evidence that contradicts their long-held beliefs.

Consider this: You (most likely) hold some beliefs for which you have no supporting evidence, besides tradition. Holding to those beliefs hasn’t killed you, and probably makes you happy and accepted by your community. 

So, what is wrong with this situation? You benefit from the mental comfort story (perhaps about god) and no one is harmed, right? Well, that is only true until you encounter a community that doesn’t hold those same beliefs. Then, those unsubstantiated claims might very well cause people in both groups to die, and will at least make people unhappy and unacceptable to the opposite community. Who is wrong? Is there any way to tell? No, because the ideas weren’t based on evidence in the first place – they were based on what comforted people, made them accepted and content with the world around them.

Consider this: You are shown evidence that contradicts your beliefs (perhaps about ethnicity/race), and you refuse to alter those long-held beliefs. Although you are happy that you’ve upheld your beliefs, the consequences can be major – losing your job, failing a class, being arrested because of your actions.

Well, you now have 2 good reasons to change this particular belief, but if you’re like most people, you won’t. The evidence indicates that your belief is wrong, and there are negative consequences to holding your belief. Perhaps you decide to split the difference – to not act on your belief in a way that causes problems such as being fired, but it will still make you unhappy. Or you decide to deal with the consequences so that you can remain happy and accepted by your chosen “family.”

The Conundrum: Some beliefs cannot always be conclusively shown to be right or wrong, and the resulting conflicts can be devastating. Other beliefs can be demonstrably wrong, and upholding them in the face of evidence can also be catastrophic.

What is the scientist’s solution (and Gee’s)? Use the skills of a scientist – objective analysis of reliable evidence & an open mind.

Evaluate your ideas with evidence whenever possible. Do not continue to hold beliefs that are conclusively false. Not only is this illogical, it will eventually have consequences for you and/or your society.

Build and use your mental comfort stories when there is no way to find the truth – but be open-minded. Other people with varying perspectives can hold ideas that are different from your own, and you should allow them that to retain right so long as it does not cause you harm. If it does, then you have the ability of any organism to make decisions that benefit your survival. You should feel free to try to convince them that you are right, but understand that typically neither of you has any evidence, and both ideas may be equally valid.

A social community for researchers, mostly scientists: ResearchGate

featured image: A grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)

The Druid

Welcome in the spring time, on this blessed day of Imbolc – Brighid’s Day. Everyone in the northern hemisphere is seeing the seasons turn warmer, and the rebirth of life in a new year. It isn’t always pretty (snow slush and mud…), but it’s a promise that the world will indeed go on. We often forget about this cycle of death and rebirth, and we try to ignore that humans are part of the natural world, but nature never forgets. Why? Because it works. Surviving the cold dark winter nights, we are rewarded by the promise of abundance that spring always brings.

That is what celebrating this season is about, in any form. We rejoice in our ability to go on, to grow, and to find happiness for one more year. For many, this is represented by the ascension of Christ – forgiveness and rebirth. Children end up with eggs and rabbits to celebrate because they represent reproduction and plentiful food – new life and survival. Brighid (as goddess or saint) is a literal mother figure, protecting home and hearth – family and healing.

Let this season inspire you – think on what you will do with this year that the earth has entrusted to us. All of us rely on the earth for absolutely everything.



Awen, a druidic symbol of inspiration

Where does creativity come from? Why does inspiration often come in bursts? How does a simple song touch the soul? What is my ‘creative side’?

There is nothing wrong with acknowledging that you do not understand a thing – in no way does this invalidate its existence or value.

When we seek inspiration and try to connect with the emotions of other people, we are in truth reaching for the omnipresent force that holds all of us together. Something that is beyond a simple physical connection, that pushes our hearts and minds to leap forward to find new worlds, crossing imagined boundaries. For myself and many others, this fire is often found in seeking the myriad threads tying us to the environment. The elegance of a leaf, the cleansing feeling of a summer rain shower, the infinite blackness in a raven feather, the brutality of a predator’s attack – each of these sparks draws us from the anthropocentric world.

See me as the Sun on the mountaintop,
Feel me in the power of the seas.
Hear me in the laughter of the stream,
Power of nature, power of the trees.
– Damh the Bard, Song of Awen 

We aren’t always particularly good at listening for the call of Awen though, despite our frequent desire for that elusive “Fire in the Head.” Anxiety, uncertainty, time, preconceptions, isolation…there are many distractions that we often need to overcome before finding our own true paths to contentment. How do we do this in today’s world of plastic, politics, ambition, and consumerism? I don’t have the answers for you. Am I committed to continually trying? Absolutely.

Can you find a bit of Awen in your life today?

Today is not the beginning of my path – but it is a beginning.

featured image: Awen, a druidic symbol of inspiration (2016)

First blog post…

Well, all I have to say is that this should be interesting.
I am pulled in many different directions and find that I spend a lot of time in self-reflection and exploration, in addition to pressing forward in my professional career as a scientist. Sometimes it’s a challenge, but I think that the internal conflict ultimately makes me a stronger person. Who knows if anyone will ever read these, but if it helps me think then it’s worth the effort.


featured image: near the bridge at Sweetwater Creek State Park, Lithia Springs, GA (November 2016)